Publications on PTEN inhibition and nerve regeneration
Neuronal PTEN deletion in adult cortical neurons triggers progressive growth of cell bodies, dendrites, and axons
Gallent, E. and Steward, O. (2018). Exp. Neurol., 303, 12-28.
Robust neuronal growth can be induced in fully mature cortical neurons long after the developmental period has ended and that this continuous growth occurs without obvious functional impairments.
Modest enhancement of sensory axon regeneration in the sciatic nerve with conditional co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3 in the dorsal root ganglia of adult mice
Gallaher, Z.R., and Steward, O. (2018) Exp. Neurol., 303, 120-133
Co-deletion of PTEN and SOCS3 results in modest but measureable enhancement of early regeneration of Dorsal Root Ganglion axons following crush injury.
Gutilla, E. A., and Steward, O. (2016) Neural Regeneration Research. 11(8): 1201–1203.
The long-term deletion of PTEN in mature neurons does not cause macrocephaly, seizures, and early mortality. Cortical neurons that have lived without PTEN for over one year appear robust and healthy.
Long-term consequences of conditional genetic deletion of PTEN in the sensorimotor cortex of neonatal mice
Eriin Gutilla, Oswald Steward, Experimental Neurology 2016
PTEN inhibition causes the growth of axons. Uncontrolled cell growth is cancer. Dr. Steward wanted to find out if inhibiting PTEN causes tumors to form. Dr. Steward inhibited PTEN in the cortex of one day old rats and allowed them to survive 18 months. A rat’s average lifespan is 24 months. No tumors formed in the rats that received PTEN treatment and lived for 18 months.
Kaimeng Du,et al, Journal of Neuroscience July 2015
Dr. Liu is the first author on the 2010 Nature Neuroscience article which described regeneration in the corrticospinal tract for the first time in history. At the time Dr. Liu was a post doctoral reseacher in Zhigang He’s lab at Harvard University. Dr. Liu set up his own lab at Hong Kong University. He has been studying PTEN inhibition in chronic spinal cord injury. In this current article from Journal of Neuroscience, Dr. Liu shows robust regeneration at seven months after PTEN inhibition in chronic spinal cord injured mice.
Conditional genetic deletion of PTEN after a spinal cord injury enhances regenerative growth of CST axons and motor function recovery in mice
Camelia A. Danilov, Oswald Steward, Experimental Neurology 2015
This article from Experimental Neurology explains how Dr. Steward blocked PTEN in the left fore paw of acutely injured mice, which caused a recovery of function to better than normal compared to the uninjured paw. The injured paw which received PTEN treatment was exercised throughout the experiment. The uninjured fore paw was not exercised.
AAVshRNA-Mediated Suppression of PTEN in Adult Rats in Combination with Salmon Fibrin Administration Enables Regenerative Growth of Corticospinal Axons and Enhances Recovery of Voluntary Motor Function after Cervical Spinal Cord Injury
Gail Lewandowski and Oswald Steward, Journal of Neuroscience July 2014
This is the first paper to show recovery in acutely injured rats that received PTEN inhibition. Dr. Stewart blocked PTEN in the rat’s brain and a manipulated the injury site with salmon fibrin, a natural glue, to encourage the growth of CSTS axons into and through the injury site. The rats that received PTEN inhibition experienced a recovery in their fore paws to 95% of normal.
Liu et al., Nature Neuroscience, September 2010
This is the paper that was published in the September 2010 Nature Neuroscience. Nature is the leading science journal in the world. Papers published in Nature undergo the highest level of scrutiny and peer review. A photo of the nerve regeneration achieved by Drs. He and Steward made the cover of the September 2010 issue.
Park et al., Science, November 2008
This is the 2008 seminal article by Dr. He showing that PTEN inhibition causes regeneration in the optic nerve. Optic nerve is a simplier system than the spinal cord. This is why Dr. He chose to work in the optic nerve first. The article was published in Science, the leading U.S. science journal.
Other articles about PTEN Inhibiton
Domanskyi et al, FASEB Journal, 2011
Dr. Domansky ablated PTEN in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease, which prevented the mice from developing Parkinson’s disease.
Christie et al., The Journal of Neuroscience, July 7, 2010
In this paper, a Canadian neuroscientist, Doug Zochodne, shows that PTEN inhibition can cause regeneration of the nerves in the arms and legs.
Smith et al., Neuron (2009)
Dr. He has discovered that inhibiting another pathway, SOCS3, also promotes nerve regeneration. Dr. He postulates that SOCS3 starts the regeneration and PTEN greatly increases the regeneration.